1. A DETERGENT COMPOSITION CONSISTING SUBSTANTIALLY OF 38-46% BY WEIGHT OF TRISODIUM PHOSPHATE, 30-47.5% OF SODA ASH, 1-3% BY WEIGHT OF SODIUM SESQUICARBONATE, 1-3% BY WEIGHT OF SODIUM BORATE, 1-3% BY WEIGHT OF SODIUM BICARBONATE, 0.257.0% BY WEIGHT OF AN ALKALI SALT OF CITRIC ACID SELECTED FROM THE GROUP CONSISTING OF SODIUM CITRATE AND POTASSIUM CITRATE, .025-8.0% BY WEIGHT OF POTASSIUM TARTRATE AND 0.25-9% BY WEIGHT OF SODIUM TARTRATE.
Patented Apr. 11, 1950 DETERGENT COMPOSITION- Eric Eichwald, New York, NNYL, assignor to Arrow Laboratories, Inc., New York, N. Y., a corporation'of New York No Drawing. Application-November26,-1948,, Serial No. 62,219
This invention relates to detergent compositions and. has particular relation to detergent compositions adapted to be used forcleaningautomobile radiators.
Automobile radiators must'be subjected from time to time to an elficient cleaning in order to remove from them various kinds of impurities, such as dirt, rust scale, grease, tar, calcium salts originating from the natural. hardness of the water supply, and other depositsand foreign mat-.- ter. Aneificient detergent composition must be capable of loosening and; removing all these impurities within a relatively short time. It is likewise important that the composition should have no corrosive or other harmful effect on the human skin and the metallic and non-metallic materials with which it comes in contact during its application to cleaning. Finally, the composition should be chemically and physically stable and preferably non-deliquescent solid condition in order to be capable of being stored without undesiredchanges for a considerable period of time.
While there are quite a number of known detergents which are suitable for removing one or the other of the above mentioned impurities and/ordeposits, no. composition was hitherto known.
which meets all necessary requirements, i. e. quick removal of all impurities which may be present in automobile radiators and have entirely different chemicalcompositions and dilferentphysical structure and properties; absence of any corrosive or other harmful effect on the human skin, the radiator walls or parts and other materials with which the detergent composition comes in contact, and sufiicient stability on storneutralizer. Such compositions are ineflicient and harmful. They may cause, corrosion and de.-, terioration 'of'the radiator, theradiator blockand the rubber hose, particularly if permitted toremain in the radiator for a. relatively long period oftime,
radiator cleaners. Moreover,- irrespective'ofthe period of time, during which they are left in the.
radiator, the products generally on'themarket at present are inefficient, because they do notv remove, impurities which obstruct and: clogv the for example two or more; days, as often prescribed inthe useof known radiator. They removelonly rust scale and that incompletely.
The main object-of thepresent invention is.
toprovide. a. detergent composition which is capable of thoroughly cleaning radiators of automobiles .and can be successfully used for, the removal from automobile radiators of scaleand other deposits-formed, on thewalls of the radiator or on the surface of radiator parts, and the simultaneous removal of other impurities or foreign matter, such as dirt,.-grease,- tar, oil and products.
originating from the natural hardness of the water supply.
Another, object of this invention is. to provide a detergent composition of, the above mentioned type, by means of which cleaning of an automobile radiatorcan. be carried out within a relatively short time, for example 30 minutes.
It is also an object of.,the invention to provide a detergent composition for the cooling system of automobiles, which has no corrosive or other harmful effect ontheradiator, and other metallic or nonmetallicparts or, materials with which it by way of example, some preferred embodiments of the invention.
As briefly mentioned above, an efiicient detergent composition for cleaning automobile radiators must be capableof removing from thecooling system all deposits, impurities or foreign matter, which-cause obstruction-in the cooling system of the automobile. These substances principally include rust scale; lime, iron. and other metallic deposits, grease, tar, oil and dirt.
Strong alkalis, such as sodium hydroxide-or, potassium hydroxide are not effective. They are capable of-emulsifyihg some grease and oil residues, but are not effective in the-removal of other substances which are generally involved in radiator obstructions. On the other hand, such strong alkalisare harmfulto and cause deterioration of theradiator, radiator block andjthe rubber hose.
Inthorough investigation of the cleaning and: other effects-of various chemicals it hasnow been found that in order to obtain a satisfactory detergent composition for cleaning the cooling systems of automobiles, several ingredients must be used in a specific combination, in which these ingredients are so balanced that they mutually contribute to the desired unitary effect and act upon each other in such a manner that a satisfactory cleaning effect, as well as absence of corrosion and other harmful effects, and stability of the composition in solid as well as in dissolved condition is obtained.
The chemical substances used in the compositions according to the present invention are the following:
(1) Trisodium phosphate or trisodium orthophosphate of the formula Na3Po4.12I-I2O, a watersoluble salt of the orthophosphoric acid.
(2) Soda ash, i. e. commercial anhydrous sodium carbonate containing about 99% NazCOa.
(3) The double salt NaI-ICOa.Na2CO3.2H2O, which is a water-soluble commercial product forming snowflake crystals and is known under the name sesquicarbonate of soda.
(4) Sodium borate or borax of the formula Na2B4O7.1OHzO.
p (5) Sodium bicarbonate of the formula NaHCOs.
(6) Sodium citrate of the formula 2Na3CsH50'1.11I-I2O or potassium citrate of the formula KsCeHsOmHzO ('7) Potassium tartrate, C4H4OGK2J/ I-I2O. (8) Sodium tartrate, Na2C4H4Oa2H2O.
' It was found that owing to the balanced condition of compositions containing the above ingredients in the proportions stated hereinafter, such compositions satisfy all necessary requirements in the cleaning of cooling systems of automobiles.
The following examples specifically illustrate the proportions and ranges of proportions which have been used with advantage in carrying out the present invention. However, the invention is not limited to the particular proportions shown in the following examples. The figures given are percentages by weight and refer to compounds of the formulas stated in the following table of examples.
in order to obtain an efiicient cleaning. The compositions remove dirt and rust scale, and leave a lustre on the inner surface of the radiator after application. Grease, tar and oil are also dispersed and removed with the cleaning solution. The chemical action of the ingredients is so balanced that the solid composition does not cake, while the solution has an optimum cleaning effeet, and no harmful effect on the human skin, on the rubber hose used, the enamel of the automobile and the metals with which the solution may come in contact, such as aluminum, copper, nickel, chromium and their alloys. Without committing myself to any theory, it seems that the sodium sesquicarbonate acts as a stabilizer, while the sodium citrate (or potassium citrate) and the potassium tartrate and sodium tartrate prevent the occurrence of corrosion of the metals or their alloys.
I want to emphasize that according to my investigations the use of all of the above described ingredients and their use in the proportions and ranges stated above is necessary in order to obtain a satisfactory cleaning effect, 1. e. an effect on all customary impurities and deposits, in the absence of corrosive or other harmful effects.
Trisodium phosphate and sodium carbonate are well recognized as cleansers, rinsers, and water softeners. But they do not have sufficient cleansing power in themselves to remove all obstructing ingredients and deposits occurring in cooling systems of automobiles, and, moreover, when used in form of the mixtures now on the market, they are harmful to the radiator, radiator hose and radiator block.
In preparing the compositions of the present invention, I have found it convenient to first form a substantially homogeneous mixture from trisodium phosphate and sodium carbonate, then add sodium bicarbonate, sodium borate and sodium sesquicarbonate, and finally the remaining chemicals. All the chemicals have to be of good quality and free flowing and free from foreign substances. The chemicals are preferably sifted through an appropriate mesh screen. The mixing may be done in a turbine power mixer, for example for a period of 10 to minutes until the ingredients are thoroughly mixed and blended.
The solution of the composition is preferably No. of example (a) Trisoclium phosphate (Na;PO4.l2HzO) (b) soda ash (NazOOg) (0) Sodium scsquicarbonatc (N3HCO3.N8.2C (11) Sodium borate (NTMBQOTJOHQO) (e) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCOz) (1) Sodium citrate (2Na:CBH5O .11H O) or potassium citrate (KxCtHsOpHzO) l- (g) Potassium tartrate (CiHlOaKmBHiO). (11) Sodium tartrate (N21204H4052H)--.
4s 4s 45 45 44 3s 45% 47% 45 40 44 as so 2 1 3 2 2 3 2 3 1 2 2 2 3 2 3 1 2 2 2 3 2 l4 1 3 2 5 7 i4 l 1 3 2 5 8 A a 3 2 5 9 As shown by the above examples, trisodium phosphate is used in amounts of 38-46%, and soda ash in amounts of 30-47.5%, while the rest of the compositions consist of l-3% of sodium sesquicarbonate, 1-3% of sodium borate, 1-3% of sodium bicarbonate, 0.25-'7.0% of sodium citrate or potassium citrate, 0.25-8.0% of potassiumtartrate and 0.25-9.0% of sodium tartrate.
' The compositions made according to the present invention readily dissolve in cold water and much more readily in hot water. Upon dissolution of the composition, the water used for dissolution is softened and this effect is necessary 7 used in hot condition and preferably forced through the automobile cooling system under pressure. The application of the solution under is not limited to the specific details described above and; may be carried out with various modifications without departing from the scope of the invention as defined in the appended claims. The compositions according to the invention may be used for cleaning any cooling systems similar to the cooling system of the present automobile engines.
What is claimed is:
l. A detergent composition consisting substantially of 38-46% by weight of trisodium phosphate, 30-47.5% of soda ash, 1-3% by weight of sodium sesquicarbonate, 13% by weight of sodium borate, 1-3% by weight of sodium bicarbonate, 0.25- 7.0% by weight of an alkali salt of citric acid selected from the group consisting of sodium citrate and potassium citrate, 0.25-8.0% by weight of potassium tartrate and 0.25-9% by weight of sodium tartrate.
2. A detergent composition for cleaning the cooling system of automobile engines and the like, said composition consisting substantially of 46 parts by weight of trisodium phosphate, 45% parts by weight of soda ash, 2 parts by weight of sodium sesquicarbonate, 3 parts by weight of sodium borate, 3 parts by weight of sodium bicarbonate, A part by weight of an alkali salt of citric acid selected from the group consisting of sodium citrate and potassium citrate, part by weight of potassium tartrate, and A part by weight of sodium tartrate.
3. A detergent composition for cleaning the cooling system of automobile engines and the like, said composition consisting substantially of 45 parts by weight of trisodium phosphate, parts by weight of soda ash, 2 parts by weight of sodium" sesquicarbonate, 2 parts by weight of sodium b0- rate, 2 parts by weight of sodium bicarbonate, 3 parts by weight of an alkali salt of citric acid g-j selected from the group consisting of sodium citrate and potassium citrate, 3 parts by weight parts' -by weight of an alkali salt of citric acid 2 selected from the group consisting of sodium citrate. and potassium citrate, 8 parts by weight of potassium tartrate. and 9 parts by weight of sodium tartrate.
REFERENCES CITED The following references are of record in the file of this patent:
UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 1 1,783,478 Moore Dec. 2, 1930 2,086,867 Hall July 13, 1937 2,215,814 Hall Sept. 24, 1940 2,326,837 Coleman Aug. 17, 1943