Earthquake resistant concrete structure

Abstract

Claims

Sept. 28, 1954 Q B JQNES 2,690,074 EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT CONCRETE STRUCTURE ATTD R N EYE 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 C. B. JONES lkw j la# I EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT CONCRETE STRUCTURE Sept. 2s, 1954 Filed March 27, 1952 QJJI. INVENTOR. (g. if 6:3 @M 37 U55 @gym Sept. 28, 1954 Q B JONES 2,690,074 EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT CONCRETE STRUCTURE Filed March 27' 1952 s sheets-sheet :s I' f W Q7 196%) J I l l 4f a 6 3f A J0 4 3 6'3- 615 1/ e5 $9 Jy 5^ fr C? ze? 6;? 769 35 3;? gig 3 Ay/ n l 9/ 5% vw l' y 4 :1% DA 'y INVENTOR. Og 3l? l l?? al 7g mf/ae@ ATTE! RN EYE Patented Sept. 28, 1954 OFFICE EARTHQUAKE RESISTANT CONCRETE STRUCTURE .Cable B. Jones, Newcastle, Wyo. Application March 27, 1952, 'Sera1No/27'8;83'5 (Cl. l2-7.7 y 8 Claims. This invention relates to buildings .designed to resist earthquake tremors, and in particular a break or slip block ysection inserted between the upper edge of a foundation wall and the lower .edge of a building wall which is designed yto slip or slide when an earthquake shakes a building in which the ,block is installed to compensate for lateral strain between the foundation and wall structure and to provide `means that may be repaired. During an earthquake of high intensity that would be total destruction to an ordinary building, a slip block section including sections of concrete positioned between spaced metal blocks then becomes the break block section and is designed to give and break to save I,all walls .above from damage. As the metal blocks are much ,stronger than the concrete they would .be intact and in place after the concrete was broken to hold up the building. After the vdisturbance is .over the damage may be repaired lby cleaning out the broken .concrete yand refilling with concrete. f The purpose of this invention is to provide means for absorbing the shock load caused by earthquakes between foundations and walls of buildings whereby damage to the building structure caused by an average earthquake is substantially eliminated. Various types of wall joints using ball and roller bearings, `rocker arms, springs and other devices have been used to prevent damage to building walls but it 'is diiiicult to provide 'inechanically actuated instrumentalities that may acti-late .only once in .several years that will not rust -or corrode or become inoperative for vlack of use. With this thought in mind this invention contemplates a shock absorbing structure adapted to be incorporated in the wall structure of a building or the 'like wherein a certain amount of lgive or slip is permitted between elements of the structure without damaging the superstructure and in which the affected elements may berepaired. l The object .of this Ainvention is, therefore, to provide 4means for constructing a slip joint for building .structures that may be incorporated in `.the ,lower ends of walls which absorbs -differences :in ,strain between the elements of :the .structures caused by vshock 'loads such as earthquakes and thelike. Another object of the invention is to provide a ysafety .slip .or break block section adapted Ito be incorporated in footings .of walls .of `buildings 2 that may be used without changing the general design or arrangement of the building. .A further object of the invention is to provide a slip 'or break block section for building walls and the like, which 4involves comparatively simple and economicai construction. With these .and other objects and ladvantages in View the invention embodies .a metal block having 'conical-shaped cavities yextended .into the interior thereof from the upper and lower sur-- faces with reinforcing rod openings extended from the small ends o-f the lcavities .in-to .the block, and conical 'shaped forms positioned over rein- .forcing rods -in the wall between the metal blocks with tie rods connecting the reinforcing rods extended through the ,inne-r ends of the forms. Other features and advantages of the invention will appear from the following A.lescription taken in connection with the drawings wherein: Figure l is a typical cross section through a concrete partition and outer wall -of a building structure .showing the conical shaped forms connecting the slip 4or break blocks to the foundation and upper wall structure. Figure 2 is an inner elevational view of a building wall with the sli-p block rpositioned therein with parts broken .away on line 2-2 of Figure l, and shown in section. vFigure 3 is a sectional plan through the wall shown in Figure 2 being taken on line 3-3 Yof yFigure 2. Figure 4 is yasimilar sectional :plan being taken .on line 4-4 of Figure 2. Figure 5 is a vertical lsection vsimilar to that shown ixrFigure 1 showing a section through one 0f the metal `slip blocks. v Figure 6 is a section similar to that `shown in Figure l showing the slip block .of the outer wall extended outwardly in the position to which it may be moved by an earthquake or `rthe like. Figure 7 is a vertical sec-tion through one oi the conical shaped forms .showing a combination of upper .and lower forms. Figure 8 is a lplan View of one of the conical shaped forms. Figure 9 is a vertical section through a single form. Figure 10 is a detail illustrating a'ppair lof 'plates positioned between the rconcrete areas of the-wall and foundation. Figure 1'1 is -a similar view showing an inter mediate plate of non-corrosive metal or stainless steel positioned between the plates Show-n in Figure 1G. .Figure 12 is aportion of a section similar to that shown in Figure l illustrating a concrete to concrete joint without metal plates between the sections. Referring now to the drawings wherein like reference characters denote corresponding parts the slip or break block section of this invention includes conical shaped forms I or similarly shaped cavities II in a metal block I2 or slip block section I3 positioned between the upper end of a foundation wall I4 and a building wall I5, or blocks I6 positioned upon the upper ends of columns or partition footings I1. The slip block section I3 is provided with a slip plate I3 that rests upon a slip plate III on the upper end of the foundation wall I4 and a similar plate 2&3 is used on the upper end of the section I3 with a corresponding plate 2! positioned to coact therewith. The plate 2l is provided on the under side of a section 22 that extends throughout the wall I between the floor joists 23. In this design the wall I5 is provided with an inner wall section 24 and the area between the inner and outer wall sections may be filled with rock wool 25 or other suitable insulating material. The lower ends of the sections I5 and 2li of the wall may be provided with channels 25 and 21, respectively, as illustrated in Figure 1. In pouring a foundation wall with a slip block. section incorporated therein the concrete is poured up to about 20 inches of the first or ground floor joist with the vertically disposed reinforcing rods 28 and 29 therein and these rods are carefully positioned so that they will register with the forms or cavities of slip block sections. Where the cone forms are used, the forms Iii are positioned over the upper ends of the rods 23 and 29 and with the forms suspended in the position shown in Figure l the rods 28 and 29 are connected by tie rods 3D which extend through the concrete below the lower ends of the forms III. Pouring of the concrete is then continued until the upper level of the wall substantially corresponds with the upper ends of the forms and the bearing plate I3, which is provided with openings 3| to receive the large ends of the forms, is positioned on the upper surface of the foundation wall. Inverted conical shaped forms IB are then placed over the rods 28 and 29 and the upper ends of the rods are connected by tie bars 32. The plate I8, which is secured to the lower surface of the section I3 is held in place by studs 33 and this plate is also provided with openings 34 similar to the openings 3| in the plate I 9 and through which the upper or inverted cones It pass. The section I3 is also provided with conical shaped forms 35 that are suspended from a plate 20 on the upper surfaces thereof. The forms 35, which are held on the lower ends of reinforcing rods 36 and 31 of the upper building wall I5 are positioned in openings 38 and 39 in the plate 20 and the openings and forms register with similar forms 43 in openings fil and [i2 of the plates 2| on the lower end of the fioor joist section 22. The plate 2S] is secured on the upper end of the section i3 by studs 43 similar to the studs 33. The lower ends of the rods 33 and 31 are held together by tie bars `/III and the upper part of the rods above the forms 4D are held by tie bars 45. The lower ends of the rods 33 and 31 are oifset in relation to the upper ends of the rods 28 and 29, as shown in Figure l, whereby the reinforcing rods of the wall section are not connected to the reinforcing rods of the foundation wall, The abutting ends of the cones of the slip block section, building wall and foundation are not joined whereby the cones are free to slide laterally, bending the rods, as shown in Figure 6. With the slip or brake block section incorporated in a building wall in this manner a sudden shock, such as that resulting from an earthquake may shift the blocks, which breaks a continuous ljoint between the foundation wall and upper wall section whereby the break block will slip laterally, as illustrated in Figure 6, toward either side and in this movement the conical shaped forms will be offset as illustrated in Figure 6. The upper wall section may, however, remain in correct position upon the foundation wall, as shown. A slip block section It on the wall or column I1 is formed in a similar manner with conical shaped forms Iii embedded in the upper end of the column I'I and positioned over reinforcing rods it and 41 with the rods tied together by tie rods IIB. Upper forms II) are positioned in the block IS and the upper part of .one block may be provided with cavities :itl through which the rods 46 and lil' extend. rihe upper parts of the rods may also be tied or held together by de rods 5B. The upper surface of the column Il is provided with a plate 5I that is secured in position oy studs 32 and the lower surface of the section iii is provided with a plate 53 that is secured In position by .studs '.ifi. The upper surface of the section IG is provided with a plate that is secured in position by studs 5t, and a corresponding plate 51 is secured to the floor joist 23 by rivets An upper column section 53 may be positioned on the plate 51. As illustrated in Figures 2 and 5 the slip block section I3 is provided with spaced metal blocks I2, the upper and lower surfaces of which are provided with cavities It corresponding with the conical shaped forms It and the cavities in the lower side are positioned to register with conical shaped forms BI in the foundation wall Ill, the H forms 6| being positioned over reinforcing rods 63 and 54 and the rods being secured together by tie bars 65. The upper ends of the bars B3 and 64 extend into openings 33 positioned oeyond the ends of the cavities I I in the blocks I2. The metal blocks I2 are positioned at spaced intervals in the slip block section and, in the event of rupture, carry the load of the building while the concrete sections are being repaired. The cavities in the upper surface of the block I2 are positioned to register with conical shaped forms B1 in the section 22 and the forms 61 are positioned on the lower end of reinforcing rods t9 and 1li positioned in a wall Iii. The lower ends of the rods S9 and Eil are connected by tie bars 12. Metal slip plates 2t and 2| are positioned between the blocks I2 and foundation wall If-l and similar plates I3 and I9 are positioned between the blocks I2 and floor joist section 22. The metal blocks I2 are positioned at spaced intervals throughout the length of the wall and conical shaped forms Iii, as illustrated in Figure lower slip plates. It will also be understood that graphite or yother suitable lubricating material may be used between the plates. In the design illustrated in Figure 12 wherein the slip plates are eliminated a slip or break block section Se, similar to the sections l2 and i3 is shown on the upper surface of a Wall '81 with a -cold joint between the sections, the concrete of the wall .3| having set and being hard before the section 3B is placed thereon. In this design the wall 8i is provided with forms 82 and the .section 8B with forms S3, similar to the forms I0. Reinforcing rods 84 and 85 are also extended through the forms and the rods are secured together by tie bars S6. The split or brake block sections may, therefore, be formed .as illustrated in Figure l, or as illustrated in Figure 5 and the `different types of sections may be used independently, or both may be used together as illustrated in Figure 4 wherein the sections illustrated in Figure l are spaced between the sections l2 illustrated in Figure `,5. lWith the slip or break block sections installed in a Wall and with the soi-l spaced from the outer vlsurface of the wall and formed with a terr-ace line 86 the upper wall sections of a building are protected against shifting by the average earthquake tremor, the same asa :shear pin protects .a motor or other power source from a shock, -or overload. The shock or lateral strain resulting from earthquake tremors or earthquakes may shift the slip or break block section laterally, las illustrated in Figure 6 without damaging the upper wall section and after the disturbance has Isubsided the slip block section may be repaired. With the slip blocksection formed in this manner excessive shock loads may cause the concrete betweenthe metal blocks "to break or crumble and 'after the disturbance has subsided the broken concrete may be removed and the areas formerly occupied thereby filled with fresh concrete. In order to insert the fresh concrete it may be necessary to build forms around the damaged parts of the structure. It will be understood that modifications may be made in the design and arrangement of the parts without departing from the spirit of the invention. What is claimed is: l. A building wall comprising a foundation wall, a slip block section positioned on the foundation wall, an upper wall section positioned on the said slip block section, the adjoining surfaces of the said foundation wall and slip block sections having registering cavities therein, and the adjoining surfaces of the said upper wall section and slip block section also having registering cavities therein, reinforcing rods in the foundation wall extended through the cavities in the adjoining surfaces of the foundation wall and slip block section, and reinforcing rods in the building wall extended through the cavities in the adjoining surfaces of the building wall and slip block section. 2. A building wall comprising a foundation wall, a slip block section positioned on the foundation wall, an upper wall section positioned on the said slip block section, the adjoining surfaces of the said foundation wall and slip block section having registering conical shaped cavities therein, and the adjoining surfaces of the said upper wall section and slip block section also having registering conical shaped cavities therein, reinforcing rods in the foundation wall extended through the cavities in the adjoining surfaces of the foundation lwall and yslip block section, and reinforcing rods in the building wall extended thr'ough the .cavities in the .adjoining surfaces vof the building wall and slip blocksection. 3. A :building wall comprising va foundation Wall, a slip block section positioned on the foundation wall, an upper wall section positioned on the said slip block section, conical shaped for-ins positioned the adjoining surfaces of the said foundation wall .and slip block section, conical shaped forms positioned in the adjoining surfaces of the said upper wall section .and slip block section, said conical shaped yforms being positioned `in registering relation, reinforcing rods in the foundation wall extended through the conical shaped forms in the adjoining surfaces of the foundation wall and slip block section, and reinforcing rods in the building wall extended through the conical shaped forms and adjoining surfaces of the building wall-and slip block section. 4. In a building having walls positioned upon foundation walls the combination which corn- -prises blocks with spaced cavities in the upper and lower surfaces positioned between the building and foundation walls, said building wall hav.- ing Acorresponding cavities positioned to register with the cavities in the upper surface of the block, said foundation wall having spaced cavities positioned to register with the spaced cavities in the .lower surface of the blocks, reinforcing rods extended from the foundation wall through the cavities in the upper surface thereof and into the cavities :in the lower surface of the block, and reinforcing rods in the wall section extended through the cavities therein andv into the cavities in the upper surface -of the blocks. 5. In a building having walls positioned uponl foundation walls the combination which comprises blocks with spaced cavities in the upper and lower surfaces positioned between the building and foundation walls, said building wall having corresponding cavities positioned to register with the cavities in the upper surfaces of the blocks, said foundation wall having spaced cavities positioned to register with the spaced cavities in the lower surfaces of the blocks, reinforcing rods extended from the foundation wall through the cavities in the upper surface thereof and into the cavities in the lower surfaces of the blocks, reinforcing rods in the wall section extended through the cavities therein and into the cavities in the upper surfaces of the blocks, and horizontally disposed slip plates between the adjoining surfaces of the building wall and blocks and foundation wall and blocks, respectively, 6. In a building having Walls positioned upon foundation walls the combination which cornprises blocks with spaced cavities in the upper and lower surfaces positioned between the building and foundation walls, said building wallA having corresponding cavities positioned to register with the cavities in the upper surfaces of the blocks, said foundation wall having spaced cavities positioned to register with the spaced cavities in the lower surfaces of the blocks, reinforcing rods extended from the foundation wall through the cavities in theV upper surface thereof and into the cavities in the lower surfaces of the blocks, reinforcing rods in the wall section extended through the cavities therein and into the cavities in the upper surfaces of the blocks, horizontally disposed slip plates between the adjoining surfaces of the building wall and blocks and foundation wall and blocks, respectively, and means between the said slip plates for preventing corrosion therebetween. 7. In a building having walls positioned upon foundation walls the combination which comprises blocks with spaced cavities in the upper and lower surfaces positioned between the buildand foundation walls, said building wall having corresponding cavities positioned to register with the cavities in the upper surfaces of the blocks, said foundation wall having spaced cavities positioned to register with the spaced cavities in the lower surfaces of the blocks, reinforcing rods extended from the foundation wall through the cavities in the upper surface thereof and into the cavities in the lower surfaces of the blocks, reinforcing rods in the wall section extended through the cavities therein and into the cavities in the upper surfaces of the blocks, hori zontally disposed slip plates between the adjoining surfaces of the |building wall and blocks and foundation wall and blocks, respectively, means between the said slip plates for preventing co1'- rosion therebetween, spaced metal blocks with conical shaped cavities in the upper and lower surfaces positioned in the said slip block sections, conical shaped forms in the upper surface of the foundation wall and lower surface of the building wall positioned to register with the cavities in the adjoining surfaces of the blocks, and reinforcing rods extended from the foundation wall and building wall through the said conical shaped forms and cavities, respectively. 8. In a building having walls positioned upon foundation walls the combination which comprises blocks with spaced cavities in the upper and lower surfaces positioned between the buildand foundation walls, said building wall having corresponding cavities positioned to register with the cavities in the upper surfaces of the blocks, said foundation wall having spaced cavities positioned to register with the spaced cavities in the lower surfaces of the blocks, reinforcing rods extended from the foundation wall through the cavities in the upper surface thereof and into the cavities in the lower surfaces of the blocks, reinforcing rods in the wall section extended through the cavities therein and into the cavities in the upper surfaces of the blocks, horizontally disposed slip plates between the adjoining surfaces of the building wall and blocks and foundation wall and blocks, respectively, means between the said slip plates for preventingr corrosion therebetween, spaced metal blocks with conical shaped cavities in the upper and lower surfaces positioned in the said slip block sections, conical shaped forms in the upper surface of the foundation wall and lower surface of the building wall positioned to register with the cavities in the adjoining surfaces of the blocks, reinforcing rods extended from the foundation wall and building wall through the said conical shaped forms and cavities, respectively, and plates positioned on the adjoining surfaces of the building wall, and foundation wall and slip block sections. References Cited in the le of this patent UNITED STATES PATENTS Number Name Date 2,050,290 Earley et a1 Aug. 11, '1936 2,208,872 Ropp July 23, 1940 2,280,455 Seuberling Apr. 21, 1942 2,342,181 Crom Feb. 22, 1944 FOREIGN PATENTS Number Country Date 290,323 Italy Nov. 16, 1931

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